Find information about the Cannatonic cannabis strain including reviews from other users, its most common effects, where to find it, and more. Cannatonic is a unique hybrid strain bred by Spanish seed bank Resin All values are averages. North Star CBD The History and Emergence of the CBD Cannabis Strains. Cannatonic Prominent terpenes in this hybrid strain include humulene, pinene, and guaiol which all share a reputation for anti-inflammatory. This high-CBD cannabis strain is ideal for first-timers and loved by those treating ailments like chronic pain, stress and migraines.
Cannatonic (The All-Star 5 Marijuana Strain) –
At this ratio, a milder high is experienced with less of a sedation effect than found in a pure THC experience. There is a chance of having dry eyes and mouth after use, but this side effect is quite common in cannabis use. Avi-Dekel Avi-Dekel is mainly used to soothe digestive disorders, decrease inflammation and help patients sleep easier. Use may cause dry mouth and mild anxiety in some cases. The taste is earthy with woody and pine undertones. Avi-Dekel is best taken at the end of your day.
It is most often chosen by those looking to relax into sleep, usually because anxiety, muscle spasms or pain keeps them from doing so naturally. While this strain can sometimes cause dry mouth, it is quite popular among those who experience anxiety attacks with regular medicinal cannabis use and THC highs. This particular hybrid is well known for its citrusy aroma and earthy tang when it comes to flavor profile.
Often taken by people suffering from anxiety disorders, Canna-Tsu offers a clear-headed high that allows the imbiber to focus on chores and work while distracting from pain and stress. This strain is good for taking in the morning if needed. This CBD strain has a quite strong effect compared to others with less THC but offers a lot more clarity than straight marijuana use. The effects are generally calming, offering an euphoric feeling and pain relief. Ideal for those who want to switch steadily from marijuana to CBD-rich strains, Cannatonic has an earthy flavor reminiscent of pine.
Dieseltonic This CBD strain is quite potent with a 1: Often chosen for mental disorders like depression and anxiety disorders, Dieseltonic gives more mental clarity than typical THC-dominant strains, giving better focus and a happy euphoria. The taste is quite particular, reminding one of diesel and orange, so it is best to be prepared for a unique flavor experience. Dieseltonic may cause dry eyes and mouth. GI GI is one of the top high CBD strains if you want lots of benefits but a very low almost null chance of a high.
The pleasant citrus flavor offers a mix of lemon and lime. This is best for people who want no high, just relief and relaxation. With an earthy flavor with citrusy undertones and a spicy sensation, Harle-Tsu is liked by many who wish to have a relaxing experience combined with pain relief and an uplifting effect. There is no serious chance of getting a real high or psychoactive effects.
You may experience dry mouth, but this is a common, harmless side effect. Best used for treating pain, anxiety and inflammation, some psychoactive effects can be expected, depending on your sensitivity. With a pleasant flavor reminiscent of berries and woody, earthy undertones, Maui Bubble Gift is the choice of many who want to lower their THC intake.
Midnight This CBD strain was specially developed to combat nausea and lack of appetite. It may also help with insomnia and inability to calm down. With a taste reminiscent of flowers, especially lavender and rose, Midnight is quite popular. Use may sometimes cause dry mouth and eyes, but these side effects are quite common in cannabis use and are harmless. These benefits include pain relief, reduction of inflammation and the ability to relax into a happy, euphoric state.
Nebula II has a sweet, honey-like taste that makes it quite popular. This is an ideal choice for those new to CBD-rich strains. OG Ringo Earthy and nutty with woody undertones, OG Ringo is commonly considered a tasty strain that delivers a euphoric, happy high with more mental clarity than do THC-dominant strains. It may cause a spark of creativity and focus in some while combating the symptoms of depression and anxiety for many.
OG Ringo is often chosen for mental illnesses to combat a drop in productivity and happiness. One to One This strain offers an average 1: Purple Cheese With a flavor strongly reminiscent of cheese and blueberries, Purple Cheese has a high CBD content and is favored by people seeking relaxation.
The high and effect might be stronger than in other high CBD strains, so it is best used at night for people who need to wind down, get rid of bad thoughts and be able to relax into sleep in a euphoric state. Use may cause dry mouth.
The taste is earthy and reminds one of a mix of citrus and pine. This is best chosen by those wishing to relax and relieve pain without as much of a high and its consequences. Trident The aroma of these buds can be quite pungent but is pleasantly sweet and earthy. Trident has a double CBD to THC ratio, which combats pain and stress while offering only a mild, more manageable high. Best used late at night and not before a hopefully productive day. Valentine X Able to spark creative thoughts and offering a deliciously fruity experience, Valentine X is becoming increasingly popular.
Often chosen for treatment of cancer patients, epileptic children and adults as well as inflammation, Valentine X has no psychoactive effects.
VCDC is designed to be good for cancer patients seeking relief from nausea and pain but is also popular for anxiety disorders and for combating stress. VCDV has a very pleasant berry flavor with citrusy hints and an earthy undertone. The flavor of Warlock is quite earthy but can be considered quirky with its skunky undertones. Best chosen by beginners and people who want mild effects, it may cause paranoia in some cases.
Zen With a 1: The taste is earthy with citrus hints and a pungent aroma. There is a chance of getting dry mouth and eyes from Zen. It is preferred by those who appreciate a bit of a high. This CBD strain is usually chosen to combat insomnia and stress, but it can also be quite useful for people suffering from depression and anxiety disorders, offering a lulling, relaxing high that gently helps you slip through a euphoric state into sleep.
It is great for those who want a strong high with increased CBD intake. The flavor is citrusy and generally sweet with earthy notes. It may cause dry eyes and mouth. Use can help soothe the symptoms of insomnia and depression, offering a relaxing, euphoric state. Critical Mass is good for muscle spasms. Dark Star With a pungent aroma and woody, earthen undertones, Dark Star is quite popular for increasing creativity and giving a calming high. Medicinally, it is used for stress and pain relief as well as helping soothe the symptoms of depression and insomnia.
Dry mouth or eyes are not uncommon. Devil Fruit has a sweet and spicy flavor that could also be described as woody.
Good for combating depression and stress and helping you sleep, this strain has some psychoactive effects, but not as strong as in a THC strain. It may cause dry eye. Digweed This CBD strain is best taken at night or when you lie down as its main effect is to help you relax and fall asleep.
The flavor is mainly sweet with a delicious aroma and woody undertones. High CBD strains like Haoma are ideal for full-body pain relief without causing too much of a mental high and haziness.
The characteristic flowery, sweet taste reminds one of berries and is described as pleasant by most who try Haoma.
You should take Haoma only before going to sleep and not at the start of a productive day. This makes it give a milder high with more mental clarity, but it will still cause sleepiness on many occasions. The flavor is spicy and herby with woody undertones. Pennywise is also used to ease symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders and epilepsy as it has a strong relaxing effect and brings out a euphoric state.
Remedy allows you to have a euphoric, calmer state of mind without psychoactive effects and the negatives of a couch-locking high. The flavor is sweet, woody and earthy.
THC extract was most commonly used in 53 The quantity and frequency of medicinal cannabis use across the groups ranged from 9. The quantity of medicinal cannabis use in the headache group averaged The options were employed working full-time, employed working part-time, retired, not employed looking for work, not employed not looking for work, and disabled not able to work.
Ranges of prescription medication replacement across pain groups varied between The neurobiological pathways of cannabinoids and pain, including migraine and headache, have been detailed, summarized and should be reviewed [ 1 , 2 , 51 , 65 , 68 — 70 ]. Briefly, the endocannabinoid system is distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, is involved in inflammatory and pain processing, and plays regulatory physiological roles across virtually every organ system [ 19 , 46 , 71 — 74 ].
The activities of the endocannabinoid system are based on the pre-synaptic G protein-coupled cannabinoid 1 CB1 and 2 CB2 receptors [ 76 ]. The primary endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids are arachidonic acid derivatives, and they work via retrograde signaling receptor activation.
The primary mediator of endocannabinoid signaling is N-arachidonoylethanolamine anandamide, or AEA , and 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG is another primary endocannabinoid [ 71 , 78 — 80 ]. Cannabis-based phytocannabinoids, as well as inherent endocannabinoids interact at the CB1 and CB2 receptors with variable affinities and actions [ 81 — 83 ]. The CB1 receptor is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the brain and one of the most abundant in both the peripheral and central nervous system [ 81 ].
CB1 receptors are expressed primarily on presynaptic peripheral and central nerve terminals, and are found extensively through the anatomical pain pathways as well as many other neurological central and peripheral locations [ 19 , 84 — 87 ]. Activation leads to hyperpolarization of the pre-synaptic terminal, closing of calcium channels with subsequent inhibition of released stored inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters, including glutamate, 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT; serotonin , gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA , noradrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine, D-aspartate, and cholecystokinin at inhibitory and excitatory synapses [ 19 , 71 , 73 , 80 , 86 , 88 — 90 ], and can modulate pain pathways involving opioid, serotonin, and N-methyl-d-aspartate NMDA receptors through other indirect mechanisms [ 91 ].
The CB2 receptors are located primarily in the peripheral tissues and immune cells where they influence the release of cytokines, chemokines, and cell migration including neutrophils and macrophages, but do have some presence in the central nervous system [ 18 , 86 , 92 — 95 ], and may also contribute to pain relief by dopamine release modulation [ 96 , 97 ].
Over phytochemicals have been described in cannabis [ 98 ], 18 different chemical classes, and more than different phytocannabinoids, although some are breakdown products [ 99 , ]. There are many additional cannabinoids referred to as minor cannabinoids. The quantities of major and minor cannabinoids are widely variable between different types of cannabis strains.
There is evidence for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in many of the cannabinoids, and this publication will focus primarily on these properties for the cannabinoids assessed in this study. However, a more extensive discussion and a comprehensive review of other medicinal properties of these, as well as many other cannabinoids, has been summarized and is available [ 28 ].
THC is one of the most researched cannabinoids, and the cause of the psychoactive side effects of cannabis, suspected from modulation of glutamate and GABA systems [ 18 , 83 , — ].
It is a partial agonist at CB1 greater than CB2 receptors, which are its primary mechanisms of action. THC enhances analgesia from kappa opioid receptor agonist medications [ — ], stimulates production of beta-endorphin and increases proenkephalin mRNA levels in brainstem regions involved in pain processing [ — ], and intraventricular and intrathecal administration of THC produces analgesia similar to opioids [ ].
THC is 20 times more anti-inflammatory than aspirin, twice as anti-inflammatory as hydrocortisone [ ], and has well documented analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits including arthritic and inflammatory conditions [ 83 , , , — ].
There have been many positive studies across various chronic pain syndromes, showing benefit of THC in trials with smoked or vaporized cannabis comparing between different doses of THC, with benefit often noted at higher percentages [ 28 , 47 , — ].
However, compositions of other cannabinoids including CBD, minor cannabinoids, and other important compounds such as terpenes were not assessed in most of these trials.
Given the entourage effects of cannabis [ , ], where cannabinoids and terpenes influence activity of one another, resulting in strain-specific characteristics, effects and responses, it is often unclear if these studies showing positive or negative effects of cannabis are due to the THC alone, or due to synergy between undefined compositions of other cannabinoids and terpenes.
There have been a multitude of studies confirming benefit in various chronic pain syndromes with an oral-mucosal spray called Nabiximols Sativex [ — ], approved in 30 countries for various neurological symptoms.
This is a tincture of cannabis made from cannabis plants [ ]. Each spray delivers a standardized dose of 2.
Despite the standardized THC: CBD ratio, the actual concentrations of terpenes and other compounds are unknown. This again creates uncertainty as to what components are providing most of the benefit, although entourage effects are again suspected. There was also a study comparing between three varieties of this spray; 1: Other cannabis extract studies of only THC and CBD in varying doses also showed pain benefit, although these did not evaluate each cannabinoid individually [ , ].
The strong anti-emetic benefits of THC have also been well documented in adults [ 26 , 83 , , , — ] and children [ , — ], and migraine associated nausea and vomiting would certainly be another benefit of THC. In fact, the FDA has approved two synthetic forms of THC in the treatment of chemotherapy related nausea and vomiting; Dronabinol [ ] and Nabilone [ ].
Notably, these synthetic THC medications have also shown analgesic effects [ 55 , 57 , 62 , , — ]. It has gained a lot of attention over the past several years due to its lack of any psychoactivity, as opposed to THC. In November , The World Health Organization announced that in humans, CBD exhibits no evidence for abuse or dependence potential, and there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD [ ].
CBD has powerful analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects [ 23 , 83 , , — , — , , — ] mediated by both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibition. Its anti-inflammatory effect is several hundred times more potent than aspirin [ , ], although to date, there have been no clinical studies evaluating pure CBD in headache or chronic pain disorders. At low concentrations, its antagonism of CB1 underlies its neutralizing effects on the CB1 agonist THC side effects such as anxiety, tachycardia, and sedation [ — ].
THC ratio is at least 8: THC ratio is around 2: It is also an inverse agonist at the CB2 receptor, which may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects [ ].
CBD also interacts with a multitude of ion channels, enzymes, and other receptors [ 18 , 83 , , , , ]. It acts as a TRPV1 agonist, similar to capsaicin, although without the noxious sides effects, and also inhibits AEA uptake and metabolism [ — , , ]. Cannabinoid acids are the precursors to the cannabinoids in raw and live cannabis, and have no psychotropic qualities. They are decarboxylated by heat, UV exposure, and prolonged storage to form the active cannabinoids, although heat such as from smoking or vaporizing is the primary conversion factor.
THCA is a TRPA1 partial agonist [ ], and TRPM8 antagonist [ ] which may underlie a potential role in analgesia, and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory [ ] and anti-nausea properties [ ]. CBDA is often obtained through consumption of raw cannabis juice. It is also anti-inflammatory [ , , ] via selective COX2 inhibition, and has anti-nausea properties [ , ]. The terpenes, or terpenoids, form the largest group of phytochemicals [ 99 ], and account for some pharmacological properties of cannabis, as well as many medicinal herbs, plants and essential oils.
They are the source of flavors, aromas, and other characteristics that help differentiate cannabis strains. The terms terpenes and terpenoids are often used interchangeably in the literature, although technically, terpenes are basic hydrocarbons, while terpenoids contain extra functional groups of a wide range of chemical elements.
Cannabis contains up to different terpenes [ ], and they are generally classified as primary and secondary terpenes, based on how frequent they occur in cannabis.
They are lipophilic with wide ranging mechanisms of action sites including neurotransmitter receptors, G-protein receptors, muscle and neuronal ion channels, enzymes, cell membranes, and second messenger systems [ , , ]. The terpenes work synergistically with the cannabinoids for a variety of therapeutic effects, and this phenomenon is known as the cannabis entourage effects [ , ]. They have shown many medicinal benefits, including anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties [ ].
This publication will focus primarily on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic evidence for the terpenes analyzed in this study, although a more extensive discussion and a comprehensive review of other medicinal properties of these, as well as many other terpenes has been summarized and is available [ 28 ]. The majority of this data comes from preclinical studies involving animal models or in vitro studies, and some of the reported benefits attributed to individual terpenes come from studies evaluating whole essential oils or plants in which the specified terpene may be a predominant constituent.
However, therapeutic contribution from some of the other terpenes in some of these studies cannot be excluded. It has anti-inflammatory effects in human chondrocytes, suggesting anti-osteoarthritic activity [ , ], anti-inflammatory effects by PGE-1 [ ], and anti-nociception properties [ ]. Its analgesic effects were antagonized by naloxone suggesting an opioid-mediated mechanism [ , ]. Its significant anti-inflammatory effects [ ] occur via prostaglandin E2 [ ] and it has anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes suggesting anti-osteoarthritic activity and the ability to halt or slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression [ ].
D-limonene limonene is prominent in the rinds of citrus fruits, and the second most commonly occurring terpene in nature [ ]. It has analgesic [ ], anti-inflammatory [ , — ], and antidepressant effects [ , ]. It contributes to muscle relaxation and sleep [ ], and is a powerful anxiolytic [ — ], which extended anxiolytic benefit to patients with chronic myeloid leukemia CML [ ]. It increases the metabolic turnover of dopamine in the hippocampus and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, suggesting that anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects may occur by the suppression of dopamine activity related to enhanced serotonergic neurons, especially via 5-HT1A [ ].
Linalool is found in flowers and spices including citrus, lavender, rosewood, birch trees, and coriander. Its local anesthetic effects [ ] were equivalent to procaine and menthol [ ], and analgesic effects have been attributed to adenosine A 2A activity [ ] and ionotropic glutamate receptors including AMPA, NMDA and kainate [ ].
Morphine opioid usage in gastric banding surgical patients was significantly decreased following lavender inhalation vs. It has analgesic effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain [ ], and has potent anti-inflammatory effects [ — ], with local anesthetic properties [ ]. Anti-inflammatory effects appear to occur via PGE-1 [ ], with similar efficacy as indomethacin and etodolac [ , ], and comparable to phenylbutazone [ , ].
It is found in herbs and spices such as clove, basil, hops, sage, spearmint and ginseng, in addition to some vegetables and fruits. It has strong anti-inflammatory properties comparable to dexamethasone systemically, topically, and in allergic airway inflammation [ — , , ], as well as anti-nociceptive and analgesic properties [ ]. Nerolidol trans-nerolidol is found in many herbs and spices including lavender, lemon grass, ginger, jasmine, tea tree, oranges, and present in orange and other citrus peels.
It has anti-insomnia and sedative properties [ ]. It has anti-inflammatory effects in the skin [ ], as well as anti-nociceptive properties [ ]. Research suggests these effects are not likely due purely to CBD: THC ratios between Sativa and Indica strains. Rather these different subjective effects are likely due to varying ratios of major cannabinoids as well as minor cannabinoids, terpenes and probably additional phytochemicals [ , — ].
THC up to approximately 5: THC, which can be up to approximately THC are considered hemp strains. Most strains utilized today are Hybrids designed with standardized ratios of CBD, THC, other cannabinoids, and other compounds such as terpenes and flavonoids, targeting specific symptoms, responses, and end user effects. Although not of statistical significance, there were some pattern use trends noted.
THC when patients with headache as primary symptom were included. However, when these patients were excluded, the arthritis group preferred Indica strains. Given the prominent features of pain with nausea and vomiting in migraine headache, the fact that headache and migraine patients preferred a strain such as this, with its associated cannabinoid and terpene profile, would make sense given the known therapeutic effects of this cannabinoid and these terpenes.
Furthermore, there were additional terpenes present in this strain of lower percentages, some of which also have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
CB1 receptors are 10 times more concentrated then mu-opioid receptors in the brain, and cannabinoid receptors co-localize with opioid receptors in many regions involved in pain pathways. This is suspected to contribute to synergistic augmentation of the analgesic opioid effects and decreased opioid dose requirements [ 8 , — , , — ], and studies have shown cannabis use did not affect blood levels of oxycodone or morphine [ 8 , ].
Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase endogenous opioid peptide release, and chronic THC use increases endogenous opioid precursor gene expression in supraspinal and spinal structures involved in pain perception [ , , , ]. A large meta-analysis showed that 17 of 19 pre-clinical studies provided good evidence of these synergistic effects from opioid and cannabinoid co-administration and that the median effective dose ED50 of morphine administered with THC is 3.
Some pain specialists have suggested the use of medicinal cannabis treatment in addition to or in replacement of opiate treatments to help reduce overdose mortality and morbidity associated with opiate use [ ]. Prospective studies have shown that chronic pain patients who use cannabis have improved pain and functional outcomes, and a significant reduction in opioid use [ ], and medical cannabis use was associated with decreased opiate use, improvement in quality of life, and better side effect profile in a retrospective cross-sectional survey of chronic pain patients [ ].
States with medicinal cannabis laws have been shown to have a The association between medicinal cannabis law implementation and decrease in annual opioid overdose mortality strengthened over time to a decrease of The synergistic interactions between the phytocannabinoids, terpenes and other cannabis compounds resulting in various therapeutic benefits and responses have been termed the cannabis entourage effects [ , ]. This synergy between the cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds leads to variable benefits, user effects, and strain characteristics.
In addition, synergistic interactions between cannabis and opioid pathways may be a promising new weapon in the battle of the opioid epidemic. Further study is needed to determine optimal combinations for specific synergies and composition ratios of the cannabis constituents to best target different symptoms and diseases.
Medicinal cannabis production has become a very sterile, scientific, standardized production process, and an emerging new industry. Similar to the broad category of anticonvulsants with many varieties targeting variable neurochemical pathways and channels with different responses and side effects, cannabis should also be thought of a broad category of medicine, of which further therapeutic delineations and disease targeting differentiations between strains is necessary.
There are multiple limitations to this study beginning with its survey design and inherent limitations. Many of the patients who reported headache as a primary symptom for which they were treating with medicinal cannabis, had also reported other diseases or symptoms that they were using medicinal cannabis for.
So, some of the answers provided may not have been specific for only headache treatment, but potentially other symptoms or a combination of symptoms including headache. This could also influence reported preferred strains being used since some strains are used more commonly for some symptoms, while other strains may be used for other symptoms. There may be some inaccuracy of patient numbers within the different pain groups of chronic pain, arthritis, and headache. For example, some patients who reported chronic pain as the primary illness for which they were using medicinal cannabis did not specify their type of chronic pain further.
It is unknown if some of these patients may have been treating chronic pain of arthritis or headache types, but reporting it as chronic pain, and therefore some of these patients may have been more accurately listed in a different more specific category. When documenting the preferred cannabis types and strains within each of the pain and non-pain groups, many patients did not provide an answer for their preferred type or strain.
If a preferred cannabis type was not provided, but a preferred strain was provided, then their preferred type was presumed to correlate to their reported preferred strain, and counted as such. In addition, reported preferred cannabis types and strains sometimes did not correlate reported strain did not fall under the correct reported type. Therefore, the preferred cannabis types and strains listed within each category, and their inferred potential benefits, may be inaccurate based on this inconsistent reporting by some patients, and the validity of the preferred cannabis type and strain data requires prospective validation.
Chronic pain was the most common reason for use of medicinal cannabis, consistent with the statistics of most registries. Identifying differences in use patterns between migraine, headache, arthritis, and chronic pain syndromes may be helpful in optimizing crossbred cannabis strains, synergistic biochemical profiles, or dosing differences between these pain subsets.
This suggests that most headaches being treated with medicinal cannabis were likely of migrainous pathophysiology. Hybrid cannabis strains were preferred across most pain groups. Since migraines also involve nausea and vomiting, the potent antiemetic properties of THC may be a reason for this preference. There are several limitations to the data in this study, and these results require further confirmation with more sophisticated prospective study methods.
However, these results may provide early insight and a framework for direction into optimizing crossbred cannabis strains, synergistic biochemical profiles, dosing, and patterns of use that may be of clinical benefit in the treatment of headache and migraine, as well as other chronic pain syndromes. PL designed the survey, coordinated its administration and data collection, and assisted in writing of the manuscript. JE conducted the biochemical analysis of cannabis strain cannabinoid and terpene compositions, and reviewed the manuscript.
OH conducted the statistical analysis of the data and assisted with writing of the correlating statistical analysis data in the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Vice-President of Patient Research and Access for Tilray, ownership interest stocks, stock options, or other ownership interest excluding diversified mutual funds , salary. Vice-President and Chief Science Officer for Tilray, ownership interest stocks, stock options, or other ownership interest excluding diversified mutual funds , salary.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Headache Pain v. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Apr 13; Accepted May 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. Methods Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded.
Results Of patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Conclusions Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. Background The legal use of medicinal cannabis continues to increase globally, including the United States. Methods Appropriate Investigational Review Boards approved the survey. Results Of the patients included in the survey, Table 1 Primary illness treated with medicinal cannabis.
Open in a separate window. Table 2 Headache as primary symptom treated with medicinal cannabis among various primary illnesses reported. Table 5 Preferred medicinal cannabis types and strains in all non-headache groups, including patients with headache as primary symptom. Table 6 Preferred medicinal cannabis types and strains in all non-headache groups, excluding patients with headache as primary symptom. Cannabis extracts drops, capsules Total Hybrid Indica Sativa 3: THC Headache as primary symptom Discussion The neurobiological pathways of cannabinoids and pain, including migraine and headache, have been detailed, summarized and should be reviewed [ 1 , 2 , 51 , 65 , 68 — 70 ].
Conclusions Chronic pain was the most common reason for use of medicinal cannabis, consistent with the statistics of most registries. Contributor Information Eric P. Cannabis for migraine treatment: An historical and scientific review. Comprehensive review of medicinal marijuana, cannabinoids, and therapeutic implications in medicine and headache: Marijuana in ancient Greece and Rome?
Emir J Food Agric. Cannabinoids and hallucinogens for headache. Hallucinogens and cannabinoids for headache. Observations on the medical properties of the cannabis sativa of India. Cannabis Indica in the treatment of migraine. Osler W, McCrae T. The principles and practice of medicine. Remarks on the value of Indian hemp in the treatment of a certain type of headache. On the use of belladonna and cannabis Indica by the rectum in gynecological practice.
Boston Med Surg J. On the therapeutic uses and toxic effects of cannabis Indica. Migraine associated with menstruation. J Am Med Assoc. Therapeutic uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Publishers; Cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain: Lynch ME, Campbell F. Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Cannabinoids for medical use: The effectiveness of cannabinoids in the management of chronic nonmalignant neuropathic pain: J Oral Facial Pain Headache.
Committee of the Health Effects of Marijuana. An evidence review and research agenda. The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. The National Academies Press; Pharmacological management of chronic neuropathic pain: History of cannabis as a medicine: Baron EP Medicinal properties of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids in cannabis, and potential roles in migraine, headache, and pain: Characteristics of adults seeking medical marijuana certification.
Hazekamp A, Heerdink ER. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in the Netherlands. Eur J Clin Pharmacol.
Medical Marijuana Registry Statistics. Colorado Department of Health and Environment. Accessed 1 Dec Minnesota Department of Health. Medical cannabis patient registry program. Illinois Department of Public Health. Hawaii Department of Health. Oregon Medical Marijuana Program Statistics.
State of New Jersey Department of Health. Arizona Department of Health Services. Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Cannabinoids block release of serotonin from platelets induced by plasma from migraine patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. Migraine headaches and drug abuse. Results of a standardized survey on the medical use of cannabis products in the German-speaking area.
Pharmacological treatment of headache using traditional Persian medicine. The endocannabinoid system and migraine. Effects of medical marijuana on migraine headache frequency in an adult population. On the physical and medicinal qualities of Indian hemp Cannabis Indica ; with observations on the best mode of administration, and cases illustrative of its powers.
Dublin J Med Sci. On some of the therapeutical uses of Indian hemp. A handbook of therapeutics. Clinical and physiological notes on the action of cannabis Indica. On the therapeutic value of Indian hemp. Schaffer Library of Drug Policy; Therapeutic use of cannabinoids - dose finding, effects, and pilot data of effects in chronic migraine and cluster headache. Cluster attacks responsive to recreational cannabis and dronabinol.
Use of cannabis among cluster headache sufferers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. J Drug Policy Anal 4 1: Nabilone for the treatment of medication overuse headache: Are cannabis-based chemicals helpful in headache? The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. The use of cannabis for headache disorders. Global Clinical Director Solvay Pharmaceuticals. Accessed 15 Dec A self-administered screener for migraine in primary care: Cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation inhibits trigeminovascular neurons.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Anandamide is able to inhibit trigeminal neurons using an in vivo model of trigeminovascular-mediated nociception. Serrano A, Parsons LH. Endocannabinoid influence in drug reinforcement, dependence and addiction-related behaviors.
The endocannabinoid system and its relevance for nutrition. Efficacy in CB1 receptor-mediated signal transduction. The endocannabinoid system as a key mediator during liver diseases: Mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor.
The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Handb Exp Pharmacol Plant, synthetic, and endogenous cannabinoids in medicine.
The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Guindon J, Hohmann AG. The endocannabinoid system and pain. Guindon J, Beaulieu P. The role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in peripheral analgesia. Is there any clinically relevant cannabinoid-induced analgesia? Multiple mechanistically distinct modes of endocannabinoid mobilization at central amygdala glutamatergic synapses. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: Katona I, Freund TF.
Endocannabinoid signaling as a synaptic circuit breaker in neurological disease. Cannabis and the brain. The use of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids for the treatment of headache. Signaling via CNS cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoid-induced immune suppression and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate midbrain dopamine neuronal activity and dopamine-related behavior in mice. Receptors and channels targeted by synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.
Novel cannabinoid-sensitive receptor mediates inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Comparison of cannabinoid ligands affinities and efficacies in murine tissues and in transfected cells expressing human recombinant cannabinoid receptors.
Eur J Pharm Sci. An overview of major and minor phytocannabinoids. Neuropathology of drug addictions and substance misuse, Volume 1: Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Cannabinoid actions at TRPV channels: Acta Physiol Oxf ; Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type Non-CB1, non-CB2 receptors for endocannabinoids, plant cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabimimetics: Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes.
Direct inhibition by cannabinoids of human 5-HT3A receptors: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endogenous cannabinoid anandamide directly potentiate the function of glycine receptors. Dual effects of anandamide on NMDA receptor-mediated responses and neurotransmission. Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana. Ann N Y Acad Sci. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55, mesylate blocks the development of hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin in rats.
Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia. Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Ther Clin Risk Manag. The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides Med J. Blockade of cannabinoid-induced antinociception by norbinaltorphimine, but not N,N-diallyl-tyrosine-Aib-phenylalanine-leucine, ICI , or naloxone in mice.
The enhancement of morphine antinociception in mice by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Low dose combination of morphine and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors. Antinociceptive synergy between delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and opioids after oral administration.
Synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid analgesics. Chronic administration of cannabinoids regulates proenkephalin mRNA levels in selected regions of the rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes. Cannabinoids as pharmacotherapies for neuropathic pain: The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy.
The analgesic properties of deltatetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Analgesic effect of deltatetrahydrocannabinol. DeltaTHC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Curr Med Res Opin. Deltatetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells.
Barrie N, Manolios N. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Evaluation of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting effects of six major cannabinoids isolated from cannabis sativa. Behavioral, biochemical, and molecular modeling evaluations of cannabinoid analogs. Cannabinoid transmission and pain perception. Pharmacological evaluation of the natural constituent of cannabis sativa, cannabichromene and its modulation by Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol.
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol activate capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves via a CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors regulate central sensitization and pain responses associated with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Expression of cannabinoid receptor 2 and its inhibitory effects on synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology Oxford ; CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are implicated in inflammatory pain. Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs.
The Ultimate Guide to High CBD Strains and How They Can Help You Part 1 of 2
Banana Haze is a highly potent medicinal marijuana strain that is revered for both its . Cannatonic, most famous for its high CBD content, is an excellent choice for patients . it is clear that this combination of Sour Diesel, Sensi Star, and OG K.. . powers of CBD with the psychoactive relief of THC w THC. CBD. 5. In recent years, Cannabis high CBD strains have rapidly become one of the With all the high CBD strains available it is becoming exceedingly difficult to find the . strains and has very strong sativa effects with a reliable CBD to THC ratio. . switch steadily from marijuana to CBD-rich strains, Cannatonic has an earthy. After all, CBD helps counteract the psychoactive effects of THC and can even reduce the . 5 – Cannatonic (The All-Star Marijuana Strain).